Drying Tips

Four Principles of Effective Drying

This post was originally posted in 2010 but it is a good one and I wanted to bring it back for those of you who have not seen it yet.

For efficient drying of anything that is wet, you need four things.

  • Extraction
  • Air Flow Volume
  • Dehumidification
  • Controlled Heat

By understanding how these principals affect drying you can make your drying process faster and safer while saving yourself money on utility bills as well. I found a lot of really good research has been done on the topic by several manufacturers of water damage restoration equipment. If you think about it, drying a carpet or floor out uses the same types of equipment we use in drying dogs and to be honest, carpets and dog coats are similar in that they are all fibrous and when wet hold a lot of water that must be removed safely without damaged those fibers. By reading about how they train their people to do the work of water removal I learned a lot about drying that can be transferred over to dogs.

Let's begin with Extraction. Simply speaking that is the physical removal of water. In dog grooming that is the most important part of drying and it accomplished by two major steps of the drying process; towel drying and force drying. Proper extraction of the water can reduce your drying time drastically.

Towel drying is a critical part of the drying process for most dogs. There are many types of towels you can use. Regular bath towels, microfiber towels, moisture magnets or chamois and Water Absorbers are all available and effective. No matter which towel you choose to use, there are key steps to drying efficiently with a towel. Begin by squeezing excess water out of the coat with your hands while still in the tub. Then, using a squeezing motion again, absorb as much water as you can with your towel. Change towels as they get wet to maximize this step in the process.

From the tub, after drying I place dogs onto the drying table which in my case, has a flannel covering on it with two or three towels underneath it. This helps in the extraction process by absorbing the water from the feet, and the water that is going to be removed from the coat in the next step of the process. If you have a short coated dog, you can ruffle the hair while toweling but in longer coats it is a bad idea as it may tangle the coat.

Some people use towel warmers or towels right out of the dryer to dry dogs with. This does in fact speed up the drying process and it allows the towels to absorb more water. A warm towel makes you and the puppies more comfortable, so if possible, use one that is warmed up. Many places offer towel warmers for sale at a reasonable price. Simply search on the web and you will find ones available in many places, but make sure they will hold and heat the size of towels you are using. Some designed for human hair salons are designed to heat smaller towels.

If you are using something other than towels to dry, then a warmer is not an option. The Moisture magnet s and Absorber type towels work better when they are wet to begin with. Simply wring them out and they are ready to go back to work again.

Towel health tip: NEVER re-use towels from one dog to another. Always use a clean towel on each dog. The same is true of the other types of towels as well. Absorbers can be stored in a Chlorhexidine solution in between dogs and wrung out well, but otherwise, use a fresh towel and wash between uses.

The next step in the extraction process for us is force drying. By using a force dryer to remove water from the coat we can drastically reduce the drying time and as a result get a better finish, as well as getting the pet dryer faster for its own comfort. A good force dryer is essential to any pet groomer in my opinion. Most of them do not have added heat but pull air across the motors to cool the motor, so the air coming out of the nozzle is warm, generally 30-50 degrees above room temperature when it exits the hose. Once it comes out into the air, the temperature is drastically reduced. So while it feels hot in the hose the temperature at which it contacts the pets is much lower. Some dryers do not pull air across the motors. As a result you are getting room temperature air that uses force to dry dogs. You might, after a prolonged period of use, find that the air warms up slightly, but it does not get as hot as one that does. You must decided for yourself what you need in a dryer then choose one accordingly. 

All of these dryers are great for removing large quantities of water, and which one you choose will depend largely on what types of dogs you groom and what your personal preference is. I like warmer air, so I chose my dryers accordingly. I find that I get a better fluff with heat, and that the dogs dry a bit faster when using a dryer that contains some heat, and I can explain why that is in the next section, but others feel like the added heat is a detriment and prefer the cooler air dryers. Whatever you choose, make sure you have enough power for the types of dogs you groom. If you do a lot of the big hairies, a larger, more powerful blower is for you. If you do mostly smaller dogs then you can get by with less force. For me, I do a variety of dogs and prefer a variable speed control, so I can adjust the airflow to the job at hand, and my dryers raise the temperature of the air as well for what I feel is a better fluff out.

Whatever type of force dryer you choose however, their principle purpose is water extraction, and they do a great job of it.

 

Air Flow is the second key point in drying dog coats. Air flow is critical to drying dogs because it allows for evaporation of water left over after and even assists DURING the extraction process. The more air that passes through a coat the faster the evaporation process will be. If you think about it, clothes hung on a clothesline on a day with no wind dry slower and stiffer than clothes hung out on days with lots of wind. The wind, through air flow evaporation techniques, dries the clothes faster and the fibers are moved by the wind as well preventing them from getting "stuck" together, and they are softer. The same principal applies to dog hair believe it or not. The more air flow you can get through the coat while it's drying, the better the coat will feel and the faster it will dry.

When choosing the right dryer, consider how fast the airflow is. If it is just a small amount of air, then the drying will be less efficient. Remember, air flow promotes evaporation. Air that is stagnant cannot do that.

Ambient air dryers are the best at moving large amounts of air. Box Fans, stand fans, vortex dryers, and carpet dryers, like the Sahara by Dri-Eaz are all great at drying dogs fast and safely. I k now some people think that a fan is only blowing cold air across a dog so it cannot dry well, but remember, we already extracted water from the coat and are now looking at air flow to remove the remaining dampness. The faster the airflow, the faster the dogs will completely dry. The ambient air dryers pull air across the motors to cool them, so the room air temperature can be raised dramatically by these dryers, even though they do not put out heat directly, so it is important to keep an eye on the temperature in the room. When used with open cages, like wire crates, these are by far the fastest and safest dryers available.

Cage selection is critical as well to the drying process. Closed cages like cage banks, or vari-kennels restrict airflow. Wire cages allow the air to move past and through the area, making them much more efficient. You can even use fans to direct the air in the direction you want to the coat to lay. Place one on top of a cage for a full coated dog, and underneath for fluffier coats. There is no end to their versatility.

If used correctly this drying technique (large volume air flow) offers you versatility, safety and speed.

Dehumidification is critical to drying dogs fast and easily. When you are removing the water from the coat it is going into the air. That water in the air must be removed to maintain the balance in the room. The more humid the air gets the harder it is to dry dogs in it. That makes sense as it is also true of carpets, laundry and even mud puddles. The drier the air, the faster they dry out. It is one reason carpet cleaners tell you to run your air conditioner after they clean your carpet. It is to reduce the relative humidity in your home. I run a secondary window air conditioner in my drying rooms to keep the humidity level and the temperature under control without making the rest of the shop cold. You can use a dehumidifier if you are in a colder climate and there are many to choose from. Dri-Eaz makes a great one that they sell to the pet industry but there are many to choose from.

Dry air also reduces the chance of heat stroke, because heat plus humidity are what usually lead to that occurring.

Temperature is the final step in the process. Warm air is thirstier than cool air. Warm air increases the rate of evaporation. As a result, in cooler climates, it may be necessary to use a heated dryer at some point to raise the temperature of the air that is being passed over the dog. This can happen by using a stand dryer, a warm air high velocity dryer or a cage dryer. Typically, most dehumidification equipment works best at temperatures between 70 and 90 so it is important that the area pets are being dried at not exceed or fall below those temperatures. That range is also a safe, comfortable temperature for most people and pets. Anything hotter results in high humidity and anything cooler results in lower evaporation rates. Mobile groomers can attest to the fact that when it's colder or hotter their drying times increase.

Since the optimum temperature seems to be relatively low I am at a loss to understand why dryer manufacturers make dryers that heat up to 155F. You can see how the relatively low airflow they offer coupled with the high heat in an enclosed area like a small cage can be devastating to the pet and unproductive for the groomer. The best drying scenario for groomers is high velocity removal of water from a well towel dried dog, at a temperature of 70-90F and a low relative humidity, using high volumes of air for evaporation.

If you follow the basic principles you will have a productive, efficient and safe drying program.


Stop the Heated Dryer Madness!

I get emails from people around the country quite often about their pets who have been injured, and I always try to assist them in whatever way I can. Sometimes it is a simple accident, like a quicked nail, or a small irritation and I can calm them down and help them feel like it was really not a big deal and they are happy when they fully understand the problem. 

Then there are the rare exceptions, thank goodness, that contact me because of a major, horrific accident, like I detailed in Chloe’s story .

One such person is Bailey’s mom.

I have reprinted her first email to me with her permission and her name withheld. She did give me approval to list her area of Canada. I was shocked to say the least and wanted to share this with all of you and maybe help educate someone in the dangers of heated dryers and in what to do if you suspect a burn. Bailey, below, was burned at the grooming shop by a heated cage dryer 2 weeks ago. She is still dealing with major medical complications. Here is her Mom's email. 

 Oh My Debi,

 I just was fwd'ed your story about poor Chloe's story at the groomer.  We have just experienced almost the same incident here in Prince George, BC , Canada.

 Our dog Bailey, a coc-a-poo, went to the groomers on Aug 24, 2010 when I picked her up at 2:15, the groomer told me that there was a little incident and that she got a small burn....when I looked at her stomach, the whole belly area and the inside of her legs were black and purple. The groomer stated that the dog had a poop in the kennel and as such was sitting at the front of the kennel, obviously too close to the dryer and got burned. The groomer stated that she was in the kennel for about 15 minutes and was alerted to her situation when Bailey was panting really hard. 

 When I picked her up, I noticed that her burn was already oozing in a couple of places, and luckily I proceeded directly to our vet, where she was put on antibiotics and a few days later on pain medication as well. She has not had to be hospitalized up to this point, but we as a family are providing a lot of care for her and really having to work at making sure she is fed and hydrated, as her drive to eat and drink is not there.

 I am attaching a few pictures. Do you know if there are Canadian journals, magazines etc that I can get in touch with to share my story so the word gets out there? Here in BC there does not seem to be any regulations around grooming facilities. I just do not want this to happen to another dog. The groomer that we dealt with refuses to look at the pictures, we have offered a few times and she has declined. She is not wanting to take responsibility and learn from this unfortunate incident. We are very, very upset with the situation and how the groomer is handling it.

 Sincerely,

(name removed)

Prince George, BC Canada

 I find it absolutely repugnant that a groomer who KNEW the dog was injured failed to seek medical attention for that dog. I really find it horrible that the dryer industry continuously ignores the problem and continues to make dryer that get hot enough to cause this damage. Follow up emails have stated the groomer will not look at the photos and admits no fault in the case. 

Remember the quote from above that reads: "The groomer stated that the dog had a poop in the kennel and as such was sitting at the front of the kennel, obviously too close to the dryer and got burned. The groomer stated that she was in the kennel for about 15 minutes and was alerted to her situation when Bailey was panting really hard". If the dog was indeed left with feces in the kennel it was not acceptable. If you have a dog have an accident clean it up! If the dog was indeed in the kennel for only 15 minutes then that dryer must have been extremely close and extremely HOT to do that kind of damage. 

If this happens in your shop, you are obligated to seek medical attention and to pay medical bills regarding the situation. PERIOD. If you are using heated dryers hanging on kennels, you need to be extremely careful in how hot they are, how long you leave them in place and what type of cage bottoms you have. I have said it before and it bears repeating. NEVER use them on metal pans!  Never use them in covered or solid sided cages, and never use them on high. Those things help make them safer. They are not, however, safe 100% in any case. there are several articles in this blog that discuss how to use them safely.

 Here are the pictures I have so far.

 WARNING! GRAPHIC!

Bailey

the picture above was taken immediately after she got home, and immediately after seeing the vet.

Immediatley after vet visit


 

Bailey 3

Bailey 6

In my opinion, this groomer is negligent and should be dealt with accordingly, if for no other reason that she failed to seek immediate medical attention for a condition that was noticeable at pick up. 

I feel the dryer companies are negligent in that they continue to make dryers capable of this type of injury despite numerous burns occuring every year.

We have to do something to stop this madness! Banning cage dryers is not an option nor do I think it is a good idea, but I do think that dryers with safety switches, mandatory ten minute timers, and heat regulators that prevent them from putting out that much heat in the first place are all valid ideas that the industry has so far ignored. 

How many more dogs have to suffer like Chloe and Bailey before this stops? Please do your part and make sure that IF you are using a heated cage dryer make sure you understand how it works and be safe about it! In my opinion, a cage dryer should have no heating element. I know not everyone agrees with me, but there is truly no reason for using a heated dryer on a dog in a cage. This is one of the things lacking in our industry. Safety controls on the manufacture of our equipment! Add to that we lack EDUCATION on how to use the equipment safely and correctly.

Until groomers start accepting responsibility for accidents and using equipment safely and in a way that makes sense, these types of accidents will continue to happen. Sadly there is no way to explain to a parent or a pet that is injured or one that has died as a result of groomer negligence, that nothing is being done to stop it from happening again. I am doing everything I can to spread the word. PLEASE spread the word yourself to everyone you know.